The site contains the sights of Alexandria - photos, descriptions and travel tips. The list is based on popular guides and is presented by type, name and rating. Here you will find answers to questions: what to see in Alexandria, where to go and where are the popular and interesting places of Alexandria.
Copts professing the Christian religion are the real guardians of the ancient culture of Egypt, its main ancient foundations - language and faith.
The founder of the Coptic church was St. Mark the Apostle. He arrived in Africa in 47-48 years and preached in the then capital of Egypt - Alexandria. In 69, St. Mark died, having suffered serious torment from the Romans. The Copts venerate St. Mark as their first patriarch. A particle of his holy relics is now stored in a Coptic church in Alexandria.
Catacombs Kom El Shukafa
If it weren’t for chance, then people probably wouldn’t soon find out what is right under their feet. In the distant 1900, a donkey with a heavy load suddenly fell underground. And while the locals pulled him out, they discovered a well more than 30 meters wide.
This is a real maze of several levels and corridors. Scientists believe that the place was originally intended to repose members of one family, but over time, representatives of other noble families began to be buried here. In the halls preserved paintings, combining ancient Egyptian, ancient Roman and Greek traditions. By the way, not far from the catacombs is another monument - Pompey's column.
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The Roman Amphitheater of Alexandria is included in the galaxy of monuments that make up the heritage of not only Egypt, but the whole world. This grandiose building was opened to the gaze of archaeologists studying the history of the Ancient World, only half a century ago.
Unfortunately, only a part of the monument has survived to our days, however, even by these fragments, scientists were able to determine that it was built approximately in the second century AD. The architectural forms in which the amphitheater is made are traditional for all ancient Roman buildings. Each stone laid in the walls of this monumental structure is perfectly crafted and neatly fitted to another stone of the same kind.
Now it’s hard enough to imagine that many centuries ago the legendary fights of gladiators took place here, the great minds of antiquity narrated their latest discoveries, and philosophers read out their scientific works. The reconstructed Roman amphitheater is now part of a large open-air museum. Tourists who decide to visit this museum, in addition to the amphitheater, can see several giant stone blocks from which one of the seven wonders of the world was built - the Faros lighthouse, a female statue 6.5 meters high, numerous sculptural images of noble persons made of granite and basalt, statues seated sphinxes.
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The picturesque Montazah Park is a great place to relax and enjoy. It is broken ashore
of the sea, therefore, it combines excellent beaches and beautiful alleys, planted with coniferous casuarina, Mediterranean pine, date palms and ficus trees. It is good to stroll here, admiring antique statues, ponds and tropical greenery.
Montazah Park is located on the eastern outskirts of Alexandria, on the shores of a small cozy bay. From the city center to him about seventeen kilometers. The park covers almost one hundred and fifty hectares. Montazah Park houses the royal palace, built at the beginning of the twentieth century as the summer residence of the Khediva Abbas and King Farouk. Structurally, the palace consists of several buildings, the largest intended for men, the smallest for women. The architecture of the Grand Palace of Montaz very successfully combines Turkish and Florentine styles. All the buildings of the palace complex are distinguished by a wealth of interior decoration and luxury interiors. The Montazah Palace and Park are the completion of the 32-kilometer-long Alexandria promenade, on which the main city attractions are located. Currently, the Grand Palace serves to receive official guests and tourists are not allowed to go inside.
At the northern tip of the Eastern Cove of Alexandria is Fort Kite Bay, which is one of the main city attractions. It was built in the fifteenth century on the site of one of the seven wonders of the world.
Fort Kite Bay today is a powerful defensive structure built on the site of the Faros lighthouse over the eastern harbor. The fort was built during the reign of the Sultan of Kite Bay to protect the entrance from the sea to the eastern bay. The main material for the construction of fortress walls and towers were limestone blocks left over from the collapsed lighthouse. From the lighthouse only the base of the lighthouse is preserved, which is fully integrated into the medieval fortress. Now inside the fort is a historical museum, as well as a small museum of marine biology. Opposite the fort are the Aquariums of the Hydrobiological Museum. Kite Bay is the current base of the Egyptian fleet.
Royal Lake is considered one of the most important historical values since the era of the Pharaohs. In fact, this is an artificially created reservoir, a reservoir built in case of drought.
Royal Lake is an excellent example of the high level of agricultural technology of Ancient Egypt.
The date of construction of the reservoir dates back to the time of the construction of the pyramid of Amenhotep (1351 BC). The historical value of the lake is also confirmed by the fact that since 1979 it has been declared by UNESCO a specially protected area. Nevertheless, today the lake faces a threat of extinction, in connection with which in 2009 a program was adopted to clean the reservoir and restore the mechanisms of the reservoir.
Stanley Bridge in Alexandria
Stanley Bridge in Alexandria is located in the eponymous district near the central part of the city. In the immediate vicinity of the bridge is Stanley Beach, over the main part of which there is a two-level terrace. From three levels of the beach you can enjoy amazing views of the bridge, especially beautiful at night, framed by special lighting.
A 400-meter-long bridge has become one of the symbols of not only the surrounding area, but of the entire ancient and mysterious city. This is one of the places that form the unique atmosphere of modern Alexandria. The main decoration of the bridge are the towers, which give the building a monumentality and emphasize the architecture of nearby buildings.
You can take a walk along the bridge and enjoy the views of the evening city drowning in lights. In the coastal area there are many small cafes overlooking the bridge and the bay.
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National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries
The National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries is located in the Egyptian city of Alexandria. The Institute is one of the twelve national research institutions affiliated with the Egyptian State Ministry of Scientific Research.
The institution was created in 1924 as the Hydrobiological Institute and was located in the Alexandria region of El Shatbi. In 1931, the Hydrobiological Institute was renamed the Alexandria Institute of Hydrobiology and moved to a new building in the eastern harbor of Alexandria, where it still stands today. In 1928, a marine biological station was created as part of the institute on the Red Sea coast in Hurghada.
The most popular attractions in Alexandria with descriptions and photos for every taste. Choose the best places to visit famous places of Alexandria on our website.
Top Attractions (155)
The Temple of Queen Hatshepsut is an ancient attraction, which is located in the desert near Thebes, or rather in Deir El-Bahri. The temple was found during excavations in the 19th century, along with the discovery of several more memorial temples.
Montazah Palace is a complex of buildings and gardens in the Montazah district of Alexandria. It was built east of the city center, on a low plateau overlooking the beach and the Mediterranean Sea. On the vast territory of the complex, the relatively small Salamlik Palace was the first to be created.
Mount Sinai, also called Mount Moses, Mount Horeb, Mount Tour, is located in the southern part of the Sinai Peninsula. According to the texts of the Old Testament, on Mount Sinai, the Lord gave the law to Moses, which consists of ten commandments.
Nabq National Park is the largest national park on the Sinai Peninsula. It is located between the cities of Sharm El Sheikh and Dahab. Near the coast you can see the island of Tiran. Today, Nabq National Park is part of the Ras Mohammed National Reserve, which it entered in 1992.
Tiran Island attracts many tourists every year and is a unique visiting card of Egypt. The island is located between Egypt and Saudi Arabia, at the mouth of the Gulf of Aqaba. Tiran is located next to the popular resort city of Sharm el-Sheikh and is territorially owned by the Republic of Egypt.
The library of Alexandria was built in 2002 near the harbor in the ancient city center. The 11-story building holds more than 4 million copies of books, in the future its area can be expanded to 8 million through the use of compact storage.
The Great Pyramids are the most famous landmarks in Egypt. They were built in the 26-23 century BC and are located on the outskirts of Cairo on the left bank of the Nile, on the Giza plateau. They are three pyramids - Cheops, Chefren and Mykerin.
One of the most magnificent and amazing structures of Ancient Egypt, preserved to this day, is the famous Karnak Temple. This temple, located on the right bank of the Nile, was built in honor of the Theban triad - Amon-Ra, his wife Mut and their son Khonsu.
Luxor Temple is a magnificent architectural structure of Ancient Egypt, striking not only with its grandeur of construction and size, but also with the elegance of its colonnades, harmony and perfection of forms.
Archaeologists believe that the catacombs of Kom-El-Shukaf began to equip as a necropolis in the 2nd century BC. and continued to use for 200 years. This period in the history of Alexandria is characterized by a mixture of different cultures.
The mosque of Abdulhasan Elshazi is located in the northern part of the city and is the main operating mosque not only of Hurghada itself, but also of the surrounding settlements, therefore it is often called the "Central".
Ras Muhammad is the most famous national park in Egypt and one of the most famous diving sites in the world. This reserve is located between the rich coral reefs of the Red Sea, goes deep into the Sinai Desert and covers a coral cape at the southernmost tip of the Sinai Peninsula.
Dolphinarium, located in the Egyptian city of Sharm El Sheikh, in the Hadaba area at the intersection of two streets Sharm El Isee Street and City Council Street - the most popular cultural and entertainment institution of the city.
Sinbad Waterpark is a huge entertainment complex in the center of Hurghada, made in the tropical style. It is part of the Sindbad Aqua Park Resort, part of the Sindbad Club hotel chain.
The ensemble of the Sultan Hassan Mosque-Madrasah is one of the most famous monuments of Mamluk art. The founder of this gigantic monument is the son of the great Mamluk sultan, Al-Nasser Mohamed ibn Kalawoun.
The Coptic Church in Hurghada is an active temple and one of the main attractions in the city. The Coptic Temple was erected in 1922 by English employees of oil companies for worship.
The Greco-Roman Museum was founded in 1892. The first collections were placed in a five-room apartment, in one small building on Rosetta Street (later renamed Kanope Avenue, now Horria). In 1895, the assembly was moved to another building near Gamal Abdel Nasser Street.
Granite quarries are located southeast of the city of Aswan on the right bank of the Nile and cover an area of about 20 square kilometers. The pyramid granite was probably mined in the northern part. For the construction of tombs, the ancient Egyptians used only building stones in excellent condition.
The Egyptian Museum in Cairo is one of the main repositories of the historical heritage of Egypt and is very popular among tourists due to its scale and an impressive number of exhibits, which exceeds one hundred twenty thousand units.
Al-Azhar Mosque is known as the famous religious university of Cairo, where everyone is interested in studying the Koran, Arabic language and literature, and various religious disciplines. The mosque was erected by the famous military leader Dzhokhar in 969-972 at the same time with the construction of the city itself and was the main mosque of the state.
Landmarks of Alexandria
Alexandria, along with Rome and Athens, was one of the most magnificent and significant cities of the ancient world. But, unlike the aforementioned capitals, relatively few sights or artifacts of that era are preserved in it. In part, this can be explained by frequent military operations and earthquakes throughout the history of the city, as well as not very deliberate construction in the XIX-XX centuries. Therefore, in order to fully appreciate the beauty of this pearl of the Eastern Mediterranean, you need to imagine how Alexandria looked during the time of the Ptolemies and the Roman Empire.
The city's attractions
At the turn of our era, about 1 million people lived in Alexandria. The ancient city of 5.5 by 1.7 km was surrounded by a powerful fortress wall. Conditionally ancient Alexandria was divided into several parts. The Royal or Greek Quarter (also known as Bruchius or Bruheum), which was the most magnificent part of the city, consisted of a network of parallel streets, under each of which a canal was laid. The main streets of Kanopik and Soma, 60 meters wide each, framed by colonnades, intersected in the city center near the mausoleum of Alexander the Great (Kanopik went from west to east, from the Gate of the Moon to the Gate of the Sun, and Soma - from south to north, from Lake Port to the palace )
These streets divided the city into quarters Alpha (northwest), Delta (northeast), Epsilon (southeast) and Gamma or Rakotis (southwest). The most grandiose and significant buildings of the Tsar’s quarter were located in the coastal part of Alexandria (Alpha or Forum quarter), along ports protected from the sea by the island of Faros and Cape Lochias.
In the eastern part of the Big Harbor, at Cape Lochias, there was the Ptolemaic palace complex or the Macedonian Acropolis, buried in the greenery of gardens. He was surrounded by the temple of Isis, the arsenal and the Macedonian barracks. Due to earthquakes and subsidence of the coastline, the complex, along with other buildings, the royal harbor and the neighboring island of Antirodos, where the residence of Queen Cleopatra was located, almost completely went under water.
Further west along the harbor and promenade were the temple of Poseidon or Neptune, built by Mark Anthony Timonium, the grand Theater, Emporium, where trade and financial transactions, and docks were made. Behind the Emporium was the Great Caesarium, where there were two large obelisks known as the “Cleopatra's Needles” (now one of them is installed on the Thames embankment in London, the other in Central Park in New York).
The Judean quarter, located in the north-eastern part of the city, bordered on the royal palace and the Gates of the Sun, behind which were a hippodrome and columbarium (the quarter was traditionally considered the trading, financial and craft center of Alexandria, and the synagogue towering here was the religious center of local Jews). Even before the founding of Alexandria as a village, Rakotis occupied the southwestern part of the city (Old Town) and was inhabited mainly by the Egyptians. Here were the temple of Serapeum and the stadium. From the north, Rakotis rested on the port of Evnos (Old Port), and from the west it was limited to a large area with the Gates of the Moon and a huge necropolis.
On the island of Faros, a lighthouse famous throughout the ancient world towered, crowned with a 7-meter statue of Poseidon, as well as temple complexes of Isis and Poseidon. Laid down at Ptolemy I and completed in 283 BC by his son Ptolemy II, the Lighthouse of Alexandria was considered one of the seven wonders of the world and served as a prototype for all later ecumenical lighthouses. The island of Faros was connected to the mainland by the Heptastadion pier with a length of 1260 meters and a width of about 200 meters, at the ends of which fortresses were built (the name of the pier is translated as “seven stadiums” and comes from the Greek unit of length “stadium” equal to 180 meters).
The Big Port (now the shallow East Harbor), where military and tsarist ships were based, rustled from the east of the pier, and from the west, mainly the trading and fishing port of Evnos or Evnostus (now in its place the significantly expanded berths of the modern port). At the mouth of the Nile Canal, near the beginning of the Heptastadion pier, Kibotus harbor was equipped, and in the southern part of the city on the now shallow Lake Maryut (Mareotida) there was another trading harbor, the so-called Lake Port.
The city's attractions
The Ras al-Tin quarter (Ras et-Tin) is located on the site of the legendary island of Faros. Gradually, silt, which entered the bays of Alexandria, swallowed the ancient pier Heptastadion and formed an isthmus between the island and the mainland (now the newly formed land occupies the Anfushi quarter). Fort El Adda is located along the northern coast of the Ras al-Tin quarter, under the walls of which a fish market is noisy, and the huge palace of Ras al-Tin (between them lies the popular eponymous beach).
The construction of the Ras al-Tin Palace began in 1834 by order of Muhammad Ali and was completed in 1845 (extension of the wings and additional finishing work continued until 1847, when the palace was officially opened). Built in the style of the Italian Renaissance, surrounded by a garden, the palace got its name from the local fig trees (in Arabic, “tin”). In the 1920s, at the request of King Ahmed Fouad I and under the leadership of Italian engineers, Ras al-Tin was completely reconstructed.
Under the last representatives of the Muhammad Ali dynasty, the palace of Ras al-Tin served not only as a royal residence, but also as a meeting place for the government in the summer. After World War II, King Farouk I even built a sea basin on the palace embankment, but in 1952 it was here that he was forced to abdicate and go into exile. Now the palace, owned by the Egyptian naval forces, is used as one of the presidential residences or to receive honored guests. Next to it is the Anfushi necropolis of the Ptolemaic era (III – II centuries BC), opened in 1901, consisting of several tombs painted in mixed Egyptian-Greek style.
At the eastern tip of Foros, at the entrance to the shallow East Harbor, there is the medieval fortress of Kite Bay, the Alexandria Aquarium built in 1930 with the Institute for Marine Research, and the local yacht club. From the III century BC e. the famous Alexandria lighthouse towered in this place, which as a result of several powerful earthquakes and other cataclysms collapsed. The first restoration of the lighthouse was undertaken back in the 9th century during the Tulunid dynasty, but after a new earthquake that occurred in the 11th century, a mosque was built on the remains of the tower, however, it completely collapsed as a result of another earthquake in the 14th century.
In 1477, the Mameluk Sultan Al-Ashraf Saif al-Din Kite Bay laid a fortress in place of the ruins of the lighthouse, designed to defend the northern borders of Egypt from the Turks, and a mosque inside it. At the beginning of the 16th century, Sultan Al-Ashraf Kansuh al-Gauri finished the powerful walls. Also in the citadel was equipped a prison for important people, later the Turkish garrison settled here. In 1798, the French occupied the Kite Bay fortress, and after their departure it was renovated by order of Muhammad Ali Pasha. In 1882, during the shelling of Alexandria by the British, the citadel was severely destroyed, the northern and western sides were especially affected. In 1904, the military carried out restoration work in the upper part of the fortress, the Egyptian king Farouk I tried to turn it into one of their residences, but after the revolution of 1952 the citadel was converted into the Maritime Museum (in 1984 large restoration works were carried out here).
Nowadays, in the fortress of Kite Bay you can see the external and internal walls, a large parade ground and a beautiful garden, cannons from the time of the Khedive Ismail (second half of the 19th century). Near the main entrance is an old mosque, on the third floor of which the throne of the Sultan is stored. In the lower part of the main tower, located in the north-eastern part of the fortress, water tanks and a prison were equipped. Often at the base of the fort, the lower masonry and underground passages there are large blocks or columns of red granite left over from the lighthouse. The local opera house hosts evening outdoor performances in the inner castle garden. A magnificent view of the sea, the harbor and the city opens from the walls of the fortress, and a colorful souvenir market rustles below on the promenade.
The old trade and craft quarter of Anfushi is sandwiched between East and West harbors (on the west side there is a modern passenger sea station, on the east - a shipyard and beaches stretching along the promenade). The quarter is replete with restaurants, shops, historic houses and mosques, among which the most beautiful and famous mosque of the city stands out - Abu al-Abbas al-Mursi (or Al-Mursi Abul Abbas), built over the grave of the highly respected Sufi, who lived in the 13th century.
In 1307, with the money of the wealthy Alexandrian merchant El Cattan, a dome over the tomb and a small mosque with a minaret were built, which became a revered pilgrimage site for many Muslims of the Maghreb who traveled during the hajj through Alexandria to Mecca. After a not very successful repair carried out in 1477, the local ruler El-Zahri remade the mosque and built his tomb near the tomb of the Sufi. Another reconstruction was carried out in 1596 by El-Khurzemi, who also could not resist the temptation to build his own tomb in the complex.
In 1775, Al-Maghribi began the construction of a new mosque building, but after a century its condition was so deplorable that the well-known builder of Al-Kahahni in the city was forced to again carry out major repairs, simultaneously demolishing the dilapidated houses surrounding the complex. Under King Farouk I, who sought to turn Alexandria into a pearl of the Mediterranean, a large square area was built around the El Mursi Abul Abbas mosque, and five other mosques were reconstructed or built around it, including al-Busiri (or Busseiri) and Sidi Yakut al -Arch.
As part of this update, the Mursi Abul Abbas mosque was once again reconstructed, but now in the Arabic style, popular with the Ayyubid dynasty, when the Sufi Abu al-Abbas first came from Spain to Alexandria. Also, the tomb of the saint took the initial form, and the construction was finally completed only in 1943.
The walls of the mosque are 23 meters high, and consisting of four sections, the Ayyubid-style minaret rises from the south by 73 meters. The mosque has two main entrances overlooking the square - the north and east, to which granite stairs lead. Inside the walls are decorated with mosaics, and the arch is supported by 16 monolithic octagonal columns of Italian granite 8.6 meters high. In the center of the arabesque-covered ceiling at high altitude are colored stained glass windows. The main dome is surrounded by four smaller domes installed above the tombs of the complex.
The domes and minaret are expertly decorated with delicate ornaments. The floors of the mosque are made of magnificent white marble, and the unique carved doors, windows and minbar (Muslim chair) are made of wood. The inner part of the dome above the minbar is framed with gold verses from the Koran, and the granite mihrab (columns in the wall indicating the qibla, that is, the direction where Mecca is located) is indicated at the base of the minaret.
From the Kite Bay fortress tens of kilometers along the Eastern Harbor, past the modern Alexandrin library and to the Montaz Palace, there is a noisy street on July 26, better known as the Corniche embankment (designed in 1870 by Italian-Egyptian architect Pietro Avoskani). It is always full of cars, buses and motorbikes; in the houses facing the harbor there are restaurants, cafes and souvenir shops. Near the main tram station Ramlech was the famous Bolshoi Theater, in which Gaius Julius Caesar in 48 BC. e. besieged by a crowd of supporters of Ptolemy XIII.
The Ramleh quarter (al-Raml or Manshiah), which is considered the commercial and business center of Alexandria, houses the fashionable hotels Windsor, Sofitel Cecile, Le Metropol and Semiramis (in the ancient period in this area was the Great Caesarium). There are two cathedrals here - the Coptic St. Mark and the Greek St. Sava, several churches and mosques, as well as the synagogue Eliyahu Hanavi, Senor Private University, opened by the French in 1990, the Schutz school founded by the Americans in 1924, and the El Manar, founded by the Scots in 1925.
St. Mark's Cathedral was built on the site of the church, according to legend, laid down in 60 by the apostle himself. In 641, the ancient church was destroyed by the Arabs, and in 680 it was restored by the efforts of the Coptic Patriarch John III. In 828, the relics of St. Mark were stolen from the church by the Venetians, but the head of the apostle remained in Alexandria. In 1219, during the Crusades, the church was again destroyed, but was soon rebuilt.
In 1798, the Church of St. Mark was badly damaged during the French invasion of Egypt, in 1819 it was restored and opened by Patriarch Peter VIII, and in 1870 it was reconstructed by Patriarch Demetrius II. In 1950-1952, under the patriarch Yusab II, the church building was completely demolished and a larger one was built in its place, while retaining some ancient elements (bell towers, marble columns and icons). In 1985-1990, under Patriarch Shenoud III, the cathedral was significantly expanded on the western side.
In general, the center of Alexandria is considered to be the territory between the main railway station of Misr in the south, Orabi square in the west and the library of Alexandrin in the east. The European architecture of the late XIX - first half of the XX centuries prevails here, magnificent mansions, apartment buildings and hotels in the colonial style are found. The central square of Saad Zaglul and the adjacent Ramlech Square and the Corniche embankment are built up with aristocratic buildings that house hotels, restaurants and cafes. A monument to the Unknown Soldier is erected on Orabi Square, on the neighboring Tahrir (Liberty) Square, surrounded by the buildings of the Exchange, the Ministry of Justice and St. Mark's Cathedral, an equestrian statue of Muhammad Ali by French sculptor Henri Alfred Jacquard (second half of the 19th century) is raised.
Shops, exchange offices, cafes and movie theaters are concentrated on the streets running parallel to the promenade and the tram line from Orabi Square to Saad Zaglul Square (including Saad Zaglul Street), from Tahrir Square to the amphitheater and Misr Station (parallel to Salah Salem and Ahmed Orabi streets) as well as from Misr Station to Saad Zaglul Square (including Nabi Daniel Street). The neighborhoods of the bustling central bazaar of Alexandria stretch around the streets going from Orabi Square to the north, deep into the Anfushi quarter.
In the quarter of Kom al-Dikka, near the Nabi Daniel mosque (XIII century) and the modern equestrian statue of Alexander the Great, there are ruins of the Roman amphitheater of the 2nd-4th centuries, fortifications and therms of the same period, as well as the remains of a residential quarter of the Ptolemaic era. The amphitheater was discovered in the 60s of the XX century by Polish archaeologists at the site of the ruins of the Napoleonic fort. On 12 of its rows, laid out of light marble (only one first row, intended for important persons, is framed by red granite), up to 800 spectators could be located at the same time, and the stage retained part of the mosaic coating.
The amphitheater suffered several times from earthquakes and was rebuilt, so now many columns and capitals are scattered around it, as well as fragments of the roof that collapsed in the VI century. Near the amphitheater there are preserved lecture halls with elevations for speakers and a unique mosaic floor of the villa of the II century, which depicts many different birds. Dozens of artifacts raised from the bottom of the Eastern Harbor are exhibited along the perimeter of the fenced area, including huge blocks of the Alexandria Lighthouse, unique statues and sphinxes of the era of the Pharaohs and Ptolemies.
Near this place in ancient Alexandria intersected the main streets of the city and were the mausoleums of Alexander the Great and the Ptolemies. The East-West line of the ancient city ran along the modern El Hurria or Gamal Abdel Nasser Street (formerly Rosetta Boulevard, Kanob Avenue and King Fuad Street), its traces were discovered at the end of the 19th century by a German archaeological expedition near the Rosetta Gate and outside the ancient eastern wall . On the same line were the ancient gymnasium and palestra, the temple of Saturn, as well as the Alexandria Museum with a library and a theater.
Now south of Al-Hurriya street are the main railway station Misr (Cairo), the Alexandria Stadium and the Museum of Fine Arts, to the north - the Greco-Roman Museum and the Museum of the Greek poet Konstantinos Kavafis. Next to the Greco-Roman Museum, between Al-Hurriya and Salah Mustafa Streets, is the Bab-Sharq quarter, built up with old houses and mansions, which house consulates of foreign powers and cultural centers (including American and Russian).
The Greco-Roman Museum was opened at the end of the 19th century in a small room on Rosetta Boulevard on the initiative of the Italian archaeologist Giuseppe Botti and with the support of the Egyptian Khedive Abbas II Hilmi. In the 80s of the XX century, the museum was transferred to the present, more spacious neoclassical building with columns, surrounded by a beautiful garden. Here, in 27 halls, many unique exhibits are displayed, covering the period from the 4th century BC. e. to the 4th century AD e., including mummies, fragments of sanctuaries and tombs, statues, sarcophagi, murals, mosaics, vessels, busts, jewelry, papyrus and coins.
At the end of 2003, the National Museum of Alexandria was opened on Al-Hurriya Street, occupying a beautifully restored Italian-style palace, built in 1926 by the richest wood merchant al-Saad Bassili Pasha. Most of the exhibits of the museum were borrowed from other collections, some of which appeared due to archaeological excavations in Alexandria itself. The mummies of the pharaohs and objects from the history of Ancient Egypt, including statues, papyrus and writing objects, are collected on the ground floor. The second floor was given to the artifacts of the Greco-Roman period, including statues and coins raised from the bottom of the sea. On the third floor there are exhibits of the Byzantine, Arab and modern periods (Coptic fabrics and mosaics, Arabic carpets, vases, glassware, wooden carvings and lanterns, household items and portraits of the 19th-20th centuries).
Along Sheriff Street, going from Misr Station to the cemetery, the buildings of production halls and workshops built in the late 19th and early 20th centuries have survived. In the quarter of Karmus (Karmuz) on a hill near the Muslim cemetery and the Mahmoudia Canal rises the 27-meter “Pompey's Column”. So it was called the Crusaders who captured the city, although the column has nothing to do with Pompey the Great and was erected at the end of the 3rd century in honor of the capture of Alexandria by Diocletian. The monolith of red Aswan granite weighing almost 300 tons is the largest triumphal column built by the Romans outside the imperial capitals, Rome and Constantinople.
Here, in the ancient period, the Serapeum, built during Ptolemy III, was located - the largest and most magnificent temple of the city, destroyed by Christians in 392 (another Serapeum was located in the neighboring Kanoba, it was the most important religious center of the Ptolemies and Roman Egypt, in its image shrines were built for Egyptian gods throughout the Roman Empire). Today, the foundations of Roman buildings, several sphinxes, smaller columns and stone sculptures of the ancient Egyptian and ancient Greek periods are scattered around the Pompey’s Column, and the remains of the Serapeum are visible in the dungeons (according to one version of the “Pompey’s Column” is a surviving part of the Serapis Temple).
The catacombs of Kom el Shukaf located near the Column of Pompey are a multi-level antique necropolis, consisting of a labyrinth of tunnels, stairs and halls with tombs. Archaeological sites found here, including sarcophagi, columns and statues, have a mixed Egyptian-Greco-Roman style and date back to the 2nd – 4th centuries. The accidental collapse of the vault in September 1900 re-opened access to the long-abandoned catacombs, after which large-scale archaeological excavations, restoration work and pumping of water from the flooded lower tiers were carried out in them. Only in 1995 the catacombs were open to public access.
Initially, they were intended for one rich pagan family, then they grew to hundreds of burials and may even have been used by early Christians. The refectory hall “Triclinium”, used by the relatives of the deceased for farewell ceremonies, and the “Caracalla Hall”, where many people and animals killed by order of this cruel Roman emperor, are especially impressive in Kom el Shukafa. In Arabic, the catacombs are called Ra-Kedil, which means "Mound of Shards" or "Mound of Shards" (in accordance with ancient customs, it was not accepted to take the dishes after the funeral rites, so the floors of the entire necropolis were strewn with fragments). In a separate building on the surface of the building is the tomb of Tigran.
The Shatbi or al-Shatby quarter starting at Cape Es Silsilah is very interesting (the garden and fort of the same name occupy the territory, in ancient times known as Cape Lohias). Here are the Alexandrina library, the University of Alexandria founded in 1938, the Lyceum of Al-Khorreya, founded by the French in 1909, the Catholic College of Saint Mark, founded by the French in 1928, the El Nasr School for Boys, founded by the British in 1929, the Saint-Nenets School Jeanne-Antides, founded by the French in 1934, El Nasr College for Women, founded by the British in 1935, and the beautiful Shallalat Garden, in which, among palm trees and ponds, miraculously preserved tower and part of the city wall of Alexandria of the Arab period with remains Roman masonry.
The construction of the Alexandrina library began in 1995, and in 2002 it was opened to visitors. Lined with granite, a huge reading room, located under a glass roof, cascades down to the sea (most of the books in the collection are in Arabic, French and English). In the underground part of the library there is a museum of antiquities, permanent exhibitions of rare books, contemporary and Arabic folk art, and a laboratory for the restoration of manuscripts. At the entrance to the library, surrounded by the blue surface of the pools and the greenery of the public gardens, there is a 12-meter statue of King Ptolemy II, raised by archaeologists from the bottom of the sea. The library complex also includes a conference hall, a planetarium and the Sadat Museum opened in 2009, where personal items, portraits and gifts received by the president are exhibited.
In the Zizenia quarter, there is the Royal Jewelry Museum, opened in 1986 in the former palace of Princess Fatima Al-Zahra. A huge collection of magnificent jewelry of the Muhammad Ali dynasty (XIX — XX century), as well as paintings and sculptures of the XIX century are exhibited in its halls. Surrounded by a wonderful garden, a luxurious but cozy palace was built in 1919 in a neoclassical style, its walls and ceilings are decorated with beautiful paintings depicting various historical scenes and landscapes.
In the predominantly industrial quarter of Labban, located near the Western harbor (al-Gumruk district), it is worth visiting the church and clinic Sabaa Banat, the church of St. Caterina, the German school of San Carl Borromi, the French school of Saint Vincent de Paul and the historic square of Bolutan. The western area of Agami (Al-Agami) is Egypt’s famous Mediterranean resort with private villas and hotels. Since the 50s of the XX century, it began to actively develop as a resting place for the Egyptian elite and wealthy foreigners, however, it preserved interesting ancient monuments - several Ottoman watch towers and a French fort built during the Napoleonic occupation of Egypt. Thanks to its magnificent beaches and a fairly respectable public, Al-Agami has earned a reputation as a kind of "Egyptian Saint-Tropez."
In the Ibrahimiya quarter there is the famous and prestigious "Alexandria Sports Club" or "Sporting", which opened in 1898. Now it has one of the best golf clubs in the city, as well as two swimming pools, tennis courts, football and basketball courts, and an equestrian club. Next to it is an interesting Coptic church of St. Takla Gaimanota, built in 1969 and renovated in 2005. All the murals and icons of the church were created by the outstanding Egyptian artist Isaac Fanus. In the quarter of Sidi Gaber are the headquarters of the Northern military district of the Egyptian army and a lively train and tram station, which has a fairly informative museum of railway transport.
In the neighboring quarter of Smukha, the Alexandria Zoo, opened in 1958, adjoins the landscaped gardens of Noosa and Antoniadis, as well as the private university of Faros and Green Plaza Park, near which the eponymous shopping center with the Hilton Hotel was built. Around the magnificent palace of Antoniadis, commissioned by a rich local Greek, marble statues of famous travelers and ancient gods are installed in the garden, however, despite the elitism of the place, all the space around the neighboring Mahmudiya canal is occupied by slum areas of the poor.
Four tombs of the Ptolemaic era have been preserved in the Kamb-Sesar quarter near Rushdi, and not far from them is the Kafr Abdu quarter, rich and buried in verdure. It is known for the beautiful Allenby Park (or Olympic Park), chic villas and cozy cafes, although in recent years many colonial mansions have been demolished, and in their place, by the will of greedy speculators and developers, multi-storey residential buildings have grown.
The famous Stanley Beach attracts tourists with a 400-meter Stanley Bridge, thrown across the bay. In the luxurious quarter of San Stefano in 2006, the high-rise complex "San Stefano Grand Plaza" was opened, including apartments, the Four Seasons Hotel, offices, a shopping center, cinemas, a promenade and a private beach with restaurants, a casino and a marina. In the Victoria Quarter, so named after the British Queen, there is the prestigious Victoria Private College, founded by the British in 1902.
The northeastern region of El Montazah (Montaza) includes the Sidi Bishr, Al-Asafra, Al Mandara, Maamura and Abukir quarters. The famous Montaz Palace was founded in 1892 as the hunting lodge of the last Egyptian Khedive Abbas II Hilmi. In 1932, King Ahmed Fuad I built a larger summer palace in a mixed Turkish-Italian style and laid the gardens, now known as Montaza Park. The new Al-Haramlik Palace, once used as the residence of Sadat and Mubarak, is now allotted to the Muhammad Ali Dynasty Museum, and the old Salamlek Palace has been turned into a hotel.
Around Montazah Public Park, covering an area of more than 60 hectares and abounding with flower beds, pavilions and bridges, as well as along the beautiful beaches here are rich Egyptian villas and luxury hotels. Luxurious yachts of local elite are located near the island of El Ahlam, and in the neighboring resort quarter of Maamura, also known for its beaches, hotels and parks, there is a new Presidential Palace. In the Abukir quarter, built on the site of the most ancient port of Kanoba, there are ruins of the Egyptian and Roman periods, the monastery of Saints Cyrus and John, a fortress used by Muhammad Ali as a prison, and the Arab Academy of Science, Technology and Sea Transport. At the bottom of Abukir Bay lie the recently discovered ruins of the ancient Egyptian cities of Kanob, Menutis and Heracles.
Kite Bay Fortress
The citadel is famous for being built on the island of Faros on the ruins of the Alexandria (Faros) lighthouse, which was considered in the ancient world one of the wonders of the world. A lighthouse representing a grandiose building 120 meters, was destroyed by the earthquakes of 1303-1323. According to ancient sources, an unusual system of mirrors reflected the rays of the sun and the light of a lantern at a distance of almost 56 km.
The fortress standing in its place was erected in 1480 under the sultan Al-Ashraf Saif al-Din Kait-Beye and bears his name. At the entrance to the fortress is an old mosque, in which the throne of the Sultan is put on public display.
The fort was transformed into the Naval Museum, with exhibits from the time of the Roman Empire and the Napoleonic battles. Near the parade square there is a beautiful garden in which the local opera house gives open-air performances. There is a souvenir market on the embankment near the fortress, and from its walls and round towers a beautiful view of the harbor and Alexandria opens.
This monument of ancient history is supposedly part of the colonnade of Serapeum, a temple erected in honor of the emperor Diocletian. The column of red granite dates from the III century. BC. and gives an idea of the grandeur of the ancient religious buildings.
The height of the man-made column reaches almost 27 meters, and the estimated weight of the monolith is 285 tons. Near it stood stone sphinxes brought to the ruins from Heliopolis. The ancient scale for determining the water level in the Nile has been preserved here.
From the temple of the god Serapis, revered in Egyptian and ancient Greek culture, there are only ruins. The building of the library, once adjacent to the temple, was also destroyed. It kept copies of many ancient texts, to which everyone had access.
The modern building was built on the site of the famous Alexandria Library, which suffered during the reign of Julius Caesar. The idea to restore one of the oldest libraries in the world was put forward by representatives of the University of Alexandria and successfully implemented by a Norwegian construction company.
The grandiose project of the Austrian architect C. Capelle is amazing in scope. The building resembles a huge drive with a glass roof tilted towards the Mediterranean Sea. The walls are decorated with inscriptions in 120 languages and a valid sundial.
The cultural center includes a library repository on 8 million books, manuscript restoration laboratory, planetarium, three museums, a conference room, four art galleries. On eleven levels, under the transparent dome, there are huge reading rooms. This unique building was created with the assistance of the entire world community and has become a worthy successor to the ancient library.
The exposition of the museum, founded in 1891, features more than 40 thousand exhibits Greco-Roman art. Numerous statues, sarcophagi, paintings, papyri, ceramic vessels, terracotta figurines - this is an incomplete list of the rich Hellenistic heritage.
Visitors can get acquainted with a rare collection of coins. On them you can see the image of Alexander the Great and rare prints of Cleopatra’s profile. In a separate room is the mummy of a crocodile - a symbol of the god Sebek.
Museum of Royal Jewels
A rare in value collection of paintings, jewelry and unique gems belonging to the rulers of Egypt, exhibited at the Museum of Jewels. Golden chess, a platinum crown richly decorated with precious inserts, and garden tools with a diamond pattern are especially striking. The interior of the former palace is characterized by luxury and unusual wall decoration.
The palace complex was created as a summer residence for the royal family by Abbas Hilmi on the square in 15 ha. The palace, located on a rock literally hanging over the sea, is surrounded by land from man-made gardens and pine groves. Today it is the guest residence of the President of the Republic of Egypt.
In the park, the former palaces of Ras et-tin and Muhammad Ali work as museums where you can look at luxurious interiors. In the park area under the shade of palm trees and pines, residents of a noisy metropolis like to gather for picnics and relax. On the shore of a small bay there is a sandy beach and a small island, to which a beautiful bridge is thrown. Palace Gardens are a favorite resting place for citizens and guests of Alexandria.
National Museum of Alexandria
By visiting this museum, a tourist will easily understand the complex centuries-old history of the city. The exhibits are carefully selected and structured in chronological order.
The beginning of the exposition shows artifacts dedicated to the periods of Greek and Roman rule. These include unique finds, raised by archaeologists from the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea. Here are the sphinx and statues of the Ptolemaic dynasty.
The whole floor tells of the reign of the pharaohs. The exposition contains numerous finds of ceramic products, stone sculptural images.
The rest of the exposition presents exhibits related to modern history and the Islamic era of the Egyptian state. This is a collection of jewelry, rare coins, weapons. The museum reflects historical features and the peculiar, more secular spirit of the metropolis, where people of different views and cultures coexisted for centuries.
Catacombs of Kom al-Shawkaf
A unique burial complex was discovered in 1900.It is located on three tiers of labyrinths from graves and religious objects made in Egyptian and Greco-Roman styles. In the center is the main grave with statues of the gods Anubis and Sobek, dressed in Roman armor. In the nearest archaeological zone is Triclinium, the place of sacrifice. The complex is connected by a spiral staircase. The walls depict burial scenes according to the Christian tradition, but the complex is protected by a dragon and a deity with the head of a jackal.
Abu Al-Abbas Mosque
The city is famous for many places of worship. The main mosque bears the name of St. Abu al-Abbas al-Mursi. The building was rebuilt many times. Its minaret rises above the city by 75 meters. Four huge domes, all walls of the mosque are decorated with skillful carvings and amazingly beautiful ornaments.
Near the fortress of Kate Bay is a museum of aquatic and marine inhabitants of the Mediterranean region. Here under the supervision of scientists in huge aquariums there is a diverse fauna that you can study or just admire unusual fish and shellfish. The attention of biologists extends to the freshwater inhabitants of the Nile. The skeleton of a huge whale that died on the coast, near Alexandria, is very popular among visitors.
Alexandria Fish Market
A huge fish market is also interesting for tourists. You need to come here early in the morning to feel the special energy of this polyphonic place, where there are no indifferent observers. Everyone sells or buys. A huge city absorbs seafood at an incredible speed. Here they can appreciate live, only caught fish. Purchases are made quickly and almost end by the beginning of the working day.
Alexandria Opera House
The Alexandria Opera House is located in a building designed by the Frenchman Georges Baroque. Its discovery in 1921 was a significant stage in the cultural life of the city. Today, the theater bears the name of Sayed Darwish, the creator of the national anthem of Egypt and is a branch of the famous Cairo Opera. After restoration work in 2004, the building and its rich interiors were inscribed on the Egyptian Heritage List. On stage are the stars of the opera and young talented performers. Guests of the city will be interested to get acquainted with the original Arabic art, listen to classical works performed by the theater symphony orchestra.
About half a century ago, in the central district of Kom al-Dik, archaeologists found a Roman amphitheater, the only such building in Egypt. In the process of excavation, scientists found other objects: the remains of ancient baths, halls for public debates, residential buildings.
The amphitheater itself was the center of life of the ancient settlement. Meetings were held in it, solemn events were celebrated, and of course competitions and gladiatorial fights were arranged. In addition to a theater with thirteen terraces, the open-air museum complex has many sculptural monuments that tell about the distant period of the city’s history at the beginning of the first millennium.
Necropolis of Anfushi
The interest of archaeologists in the numerous burials on the territory of Alexandria is not accidental. Indeed, according to legend, the body of the founder of the city, Alexander the Great, was transported after his death to Alexandria and is buried here. But so far, the sarcophagus with the remains of the great commander has not been found. The Anfushi Necropolis is located in the Ras al-Tin area, next to the eastern harbor.
The decoration of the coastal strip was a bridge thrown across the strait from Stanley Beach. Its architectural feature is four towers, made in the Moorish style with balconies and viewing platforms. The huge 400 meter bridge is a popular place for walks and photo shoots of residents and tourists. It is especially good at night, when many lights are lit, special lighting of towers and ceilings of the monumental structure.